Cytogenetics of saffron (Crocus sativus), a natural autotriploid species; an investigation on the reasons for its sterility

Document Type : Research Paper


Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran, Iran.


The red-orange-colored stigmas of saffron are one of the most expensive spices in the world. Meiosis processes in saffron showed that Crocus sativus L. is an autotriploid species with 2n=3x=8+8+8=24 chromosomes. The results obtained from the meiosis behavior indicated that the major role in the sterility of saffron is autotriploidy in this crop. Arrangement of chromosomes as trivalents in meiosis and formation of these trivalents in the forms of frying pan, chain type, Y type, V type, and triangle type at metaphase I, causes their imbalance junction at anaphase I. Unbalance disjunction of chromosomes at anaphase I and II with the occurrence of the lagging chromosomes in these phases, causes sterile gametes. Also, the formation of chromatid bridges at anaphase I and II with the occurrence of micronuclei at telophase II and tetrad stage are the other reasons for the sterility.


Article Title [Persian]

سیتوژنتیک زعفران (Crocus sativus L. )، یک گونه اتوتریپلویید طبیعی و بررسی دلایل عقیمی آن

Author [Persian]

  • سید محمود غفاری
استاد مؤسسه تحقیقات بیوشیمی و بیوفیزیک دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

یکی از گرانترین ادویه‌های جهان خامه و کلاله قرمز نارنجی خشک شده زعفران است. فرآیند میوز در زعفران نشان داد که Crocus sativus یک گونه اتوتریپلویید می‌باشد که واجد تعداد کروموزوم 2n=3x=8+8+8= 24 می‌باشد. نتایج بدست آمده از رفتار کروموزومها در تقسیم میوز نشان داد که نقش اصلی عقیمی در زعفران مربوط به همین اتوتریپلویید بودن آن است. چینش کروموزومها بصورت تری‌والان و تشکیل این تری‌والان‌ها به شکل ماهیتابه‌ای، زنجیری، Y شکل، V شکل و نوع مثلثی در مرحله متافاز اول باعث تفرق نامتعادل آنها در آنافاز اول می‌شود. تفکیک نامتعادل کروموزومها در آنافاز اول و دوم با بروز کروموزومهای عقب مانده در این مراحل ایجاد گامتهای عقیم می‌کند. همچنین تشکیل پلهای کروماتیدی در آنافاز اول و دوم و بروز هسته‌های کوچک در مراحل تلوفاز دوم و تتراد دلایل دیگری برای عقیمی هستند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • Saffron
  • Crocus sativus
  • cytogenetic
  • autotriploid
  • Iran
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