Taxonomic importance of nutlets and flowers in tribe Cynoglosseae (Boraginaceae)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Central Herbarium of Tehran University, College of Science, University of Tehran, Iran

2 UMR Agroécologie, Université de Bourgogne, France

3 Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran


The macro and micro-morphology of flowers and nutlets of 35 species of Boraginaceae belonging to the Tribe Cynoglosseae have been studied by light and scanning electron microscopes. These include Paracaryum (8 species), Mattiastrum (11 species), Microparacaryum (4 species), Rindera (4 species), Cynoglossum (3 species), Solenanthus (2 species), Trachelanthus (1 species), and Lindelofia (1 species). Nutlets morphology of the examined species showed significant variation in shape, size, and surface ornamentation. Two main types of nutlets were defined: Type I, without a wing, nutlets densely glochidiate, was observed in Cynoglossum, Solenanthus, Trachelanthus, and Lindelofia; Type II, characterized by winged nutlets, was found in all examined species of Paracaryum, Mattiastrum, Microparacaryum, and Rindera. Our results highlight the importance of the floral and nutlet characters for the identification of the most studied species, based on cluster analysis. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the macro and micro-morphological characteristics of the studied species for the taxonomic identification and species delimitation at the tribal level. For quick and easy identification of the species, identification keys based on floral characters have been developed.


Article Title [Persian]

اهمیت آرایه‌‌‌شناسی گل و فندقچه در قبیله سینوگلوسه (خانواده گاوزبان)

Authors [Persian]

  • فریده عطار 1
  • آرش ستوده 2
  • مسعود شیدایی 3
  • سمیه اسفندانی بزچلویی 3
  • منصور میرتاج الدینی 4
1 استاد دانشکده زیست‌شناسی، پردیس علوم دانشگاه تهران
2 دانشکده علوم زیستی دانشگاه برگندی، فرانسه
3 استاد دانشکده علوم زیستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران
4 دانشیار دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه شهید با هنر کرمان
Abstract [Persian]

صفات ریخت‌شناسی و ریز ریخت‌شناسی در گل و فندقچه 35 گونه از قبیله سینوگلوسه از خانواده گاوزبان با میکروسپ‌های نوری و الکترونی اسکنینگ مطالعه شده است. این جنس‌ها شامل Paracaryum (8 گونه)، Mattiastrum (11 گونه)، Microparacaryum  (4 گونه)، Rindera (4 گونه)، Cynoglossum (3 گونه)، Solenanthus (2 گونه)، Trachelanthus (یک گونه) و Lindelofia (یک گونه) می‌باشند. ریخت‌شناسی فندقچه‌ها در گونه‌های مطالعه شده نشان داد که تنوع زیادی در شکل، اندازه و تزئینات سطح فندقچه‌ها وجود دارد. دو نوع تیپ اصلی در فندقچه‌ها مشخص است: تیپ 1: فندقچه‌های بدون بال و بطور متراکم پوشیده از کرکهای لنگری که در جنس‌های Cynoglossum، Solenanthus، Trachelanthus و Lindelofia؛ تیپ 2: فندقچه‌های دارای بال که در جنس‌های Paracaryum، Microparacaryum ،Mattiastrum  و Rindera مشاهده می‌شود. نتایج ما اهمیت صفات گل و فندقچه را در تعیین و تحدید حدود گونه‌های مطالعه شده در آنالیز خوشه‌ای نشان می‌دهد. هدف اصلی مطالعه حاضر نشان دادن صفات ریخت‌شناسی و ریزشناسی گونه‌های مورد مطالعه برای تحدید حدود گونه‌ها در سطح طایفه است. برای شناسایی سریع و آسان آرایه‌ها کلید شناسایی براساس خصوصیات گل داده شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • Floral structure
  • fruit morphology
  • Micro-morphology
  • PCA analysis
  • Boraginaceae
  • Cynoglosseae
  • Iran
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