Document Type : Research Paper


1 Central Herbarium of Tehran University, College of Science, University of Tehran, Iran.

2 UMR Agroécologie, Université de Bourgogne, France.

3 Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.


The macro and micro-morphology of flowers and nutlets of 35 species of Boraginaceae belonging to the Tribe Cynoglosseae have been studied by light and scanning electron microscopes. These include Paracaryum (8 species), Mattiastrum (11 species), Microparacaryum (4 species), Rindera (4 species), Cynoglossum (3 species), Solenanthus (2 species), Trachelanthus (1 species), and Lindelofia (1 species). Nutlets morphology of the examined species showed significant variation in shape, size, and surface ornamentation. Two main types of nutlets were defined: Type I, without a wing, nutlets densely glochidiate, was observed in Cynoglossum, Solenanthus, Trachelanthus, and Lindelofia; Type II, characterized by winged nutlets, was found in all examined species of Paracaryum, Mattiastrum, Microparacaryum, and Rindera. Our results highlight the importance of the floral and nutlet characters for the identification of the most studied species, based on cluster analysis. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the macro and micro-morphological characteristics of the studied species for the taxonomic identification and species delimitation at the tribal level. For quick and easy identification of the species, identification keys based on floral characters have been developed.


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Volume 27, Issue 2
December 2021
Pages 146-163
  • Receive Date: 29 June 2021
  • Revise Date: 26 September 2021
  • Accept Date: 25 October 2021
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2021