The adaptability of Euphorbia gypsicola and Euphorbia bungei in gypsum soils of west Semnan, Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Farzanegan Campus, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran



Euphorbia gypsicola (Euphorbiacea, sect. Pithyusa (is one of the six endemic gypsophyte species in the west of Semnan Province, Iran, and E. bungei (sect. Sclerocyathium) is native to the gravelly calcareous or gypseous slopes in southwest Asia. In this study, the adaptability of these two species and the effect of ecological factors on their morphological, anatomical, and micro-morphological characters in the gypseous habitats of West Semnan were investigated using CCA and RDA analytical methods, Canoco 4.5 software. The micromorphological investigations using SEM showed the surface of the leaf and stem of E. gypsicola has long hairs with an average length of 224.5 μm, and the surface of the leaf and stem of E. bungei is smooth and hairless. The size of stomatal guard cells in E. gypsicola leaves is 17.5 µm long and 10 µm wide on average, compared to E. bungei, with stomata 9 µm long and 3 µm wide, the stomata of E. gypsicola species are bigger and deeper. The presence of small and hairy leaves in E. gypsicola fleshy leaves in E. bungei (13.4 mm in average length and an average 3.8 mm width), as well as gypsum crystals in the leaves of E. gypsicola and in stems of E. bungei, are the factors, that help these two species to adapt to the hot desert climate condition of Semnan. Results indicated that the altitude had the highest effect on the abundance of E. gypsicola. The increase of Na and Mg content in the soil reduced the abundance of both species.


Article Title [Persian]

سازش‌پذیری دو گونه فرفیون Euphorbia gypsicola) و Euphorbia bungei) در خاک‌های گچی غرب سمنان

Authors [Persian]

  • فاطمه ربیع‌زاده 1
  • اکرم نصیری 2
1 استادیار پردیس فرزانگان، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران
2 گروه علوم گیاهی، دانشکده علوم زیستی، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

گونه Euphorbia gypsicola از بخش Pithyusa یکی از شش گونه گچ‌دوست انحصاری غرب سمنان است و گونه E. bungei از بخش Sclerocyathium بومی جنوب‌غرب آسیا است و در شیب‌های گچی و یا آهکی ماسه‌ای رشد می‌کند. در این تحقیق، سازگاری این دو گونه و تأثیر عوامل اکولوژیکی بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، تشریحی و میکرومورفولوژیکی آنها در رویشگاه‌های گچی غرب سمنان با استفاده از روش‌های تحلیلی CCA وRDA  در نرم‌افزار Canoco 4.5 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. سطح برگ و ساقه E. gypsicola دارای کرک‌های بلند با طول متوسط 5/224 میکرومتر و سطح برگ و ساقه E. bungei صاف و بدون کرک است. اندازه سلول‌های نگهبان روزنه در برگ‌های E. gypsicola به طور متوسط به طول 5/17 میکرومتر و عرض متوسط 10 میکرومتر، در مقایسه با E. bungei ، با روزنه­‌هایی به طول متوسط 9 میکرومتر و به عرض متوسط 3 میکرومتر، روزنه­های گونه E. gypsicola بزرگتر و عمیق‌تر هستند. وجود برگ‌های کوچک و کرکی در گونهE.gypsicola و برگ‌های گوشتی در گونه E. bungee (به طول متوسط 4/13 میلی­متر و به عرض متوسط 8/3 میلی­متر) و همچنین حضور کریستال­های گچی در برگ E. gypsicola و در ساقه E. bungei باعث سازش‌پذیری این دو گونه به آب‌وهوای گرم و خشک سمنان شده است. فاکتور ارتفاع بیش‌ترین تأثیر مثبت را روی فراوانی گونه E. gypsicola دارد. افزایش غلظت سدیم و منیزیم باعث کاهش فراوانی هر دو گونه می‌شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • Adaptation
  • ecological factors
  • Euphorbia bungei
  • Euphorbia gypsicola
  • gypsum habitat
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