فیلوژنی مولکولی قبیله Hedysareae با تأکید ویژه بر جنس Onobrychis بر اساس توالی‌های nrDNA ITS

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست گیاهی، دانشکده علوم پایه،دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران-ایران

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل ها و مراتع، صندوق پستی: 116-13185، تهران-ایران

چکیده

تعداد 53 گونه (54 توالی) شامل 28 گونه از قبیله Hedysareae، 5 گونه از کلاد Vicioid و 19 گونه از قبیله Galegeae از جمله دو گونه Glycyrrhiza به عنوان برون‌گروه با استفاده از توالی‌های nrDNA ITS در آنالیز فیلوژنی با روش بیشینه صرفه‌جویی قرار گرفت. آنالیز براساس وزن‌دهی مجدد پی‌درپی با شاخص سازگاری تصحیح شده فاش نمود که کلاد Vicioid اولین شاخه‌ای است که بدنبال آن کلاد Chesneya-Caragana و کلاد Astragalean به عنوان گروه‌های خواهری کلاد Hedysaroid قرار دارند. جنس Alhagi به‌عنوان پایه‌ترین تاکسون با بقیه کلاد Hedysaroid به خوبی متحد می‌شود. هرکدام از جنس‌های Ebenus و Taverniera تک‌تبارند و به طور ضعیف با هم متحد هستند. جنس Hedysarum تک‌تبار نیست و گونه‌هایش در سراسر کلاد Hedysaroid پخش هستند. Sulla یک جنس جداشده از Hedysarum، با در برگرفتن گونه Hedysarum humile گروه تک‌تبار به خوبی حمایت شده‌ای را تشکیل می‌دهد. جنس Eversmanniaبا کلاد Onobrychis خویشاوند است. خود جنس Onobrychis به علت قرار گرفتن دو گونه Hedysarum در میان گونه‌هایش تک‌تبار نیست و زیرجنس Onobrychis از جنس Onobrychis نیز تک‌تبار نیست، در حالیکه زیرجنس Sisyrosema یک کلاد قویاً حمایت شده‌ای را می‌سازد. در میان بخشه‌های چند گونه‌ای آنالیز شده از جنس Onobrychis، برخلاف بخشه Heliobrychis، بخشه‌های Dendrobrychis و Onobrychis ظاهراً تک‌تبار نیستند. در اینجا قبیله Hedysareac فقط مشتمل بر جنس‌های Alhagi, Ebenus, Eversmannia, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Sulla, Taverniera, Corethrodendron  و Sartoriaتعیین حدود می‌شود.


کلیدواژه‌ها


Awmack, C. S. & Lock, J. M. 2002: The genus Alhagi (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) in the Middle East. -Kew Bulletin 57: 435-443.

Aytac, Z. 2000: The genus Ebenus L. (Leguminosae-Fabaceae) in Turkey. -Karaca Arboretum Magazine 5:145-171.

Bentham, G. 1865: Leguminosae. In: Genera Plantarum 1. G. Bentham and J. D. Hooker (eds.), pp. 434-600. -London.

Chennoui, H., Marghli, S., Marrakchi, M. & Trifi-Farah, N. 2007: Phylogenetic relationships in the North African genus Hedysarum as inferred from ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. -Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution.54: 389–397.

Choi, B.-H. & Ohashi, H. 1996: Pollen morphology and taxonomy Hedysarum and and its related genera of the tribe Hedysareae (Leguminosae-Papilinoideae). -Journal of Japanese Botany. 71:191-213.

Choi, B.–H. & Ohashi, H. 1998: Proposal to conserve the name Hedysarum (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) with a conserved type. -Taxon 47:977.

Choi, B.–H., Nemato, T. & Ohashi, H: 1999. Anatomy of nodal regions and leaves in Hedysarum and related genera (Leguminosae). -Journal of Japanese Botany. 74:236-250.

Choi, B.-H & Ohashi, H. 2003: Generic criteria and an infrageneric system for Hedysarum and related genera ( Papilinoideae-Leguminosae). -Taxon 52: 567-576

Chrtkova, A. 1968: Hedysarum. In: Flora Europaea vol. 2. 185-187. T. G. Tutin,. V. H. Heywood, N. A. Burges,. D. M. Moore, D. H. Valentine, S. M. Walters and D. A. Webb (eds.). -Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

De Candolle, A. P. 1825: Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis. Vol. 2. -Paris, Strasbourg, London.

Doyle, J. J. & Doyle, J. L. 1987: A rapid DNA isolation of fresh leaf tissue. -Phytochemistry Bulletin. 19:11-15

Farris, J. S. 1969: A successive approximations approach to character weighting. –Systematic Zoology. 18: 374-385.

Farris, J. S. 1989: The retention index and the rescaled consistency index. Cladistics. 5: 417-419.

Fedtschenko, B. A. 1902: The genus Hedysarum. -Acta Horti Petropolitani. 19:185-342.

Fedtschenko, B. A. 1972: Hedysarum. In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Vol. 13, 199-243. V. L. Komarov , B. K. Shishkin and E. G. Bobrov (eds.). -Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.

Felsentien, J. 1985: Confidence limits n phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. -Evolution. 39: 783-791.

Ferguson, J. K. & Skvarla, J. J. 1981: The pollen morphology of the subfamily Papilionoideae (Leguminosae). In: Advances in Legume Systematics Part 2. R. M. Polhill and P. H. Raven (eds.), pp. 859-896. -Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Goldblatt, P. 1981: Cytology and the phylogeny of Leguminosae, In: Advances in Legume Systematics, part 2, R. M. Polhill and P. H. Raven (eds), pp. 427-463. -Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Hu, J.-M., Lavin, M., Wojciechowski, M. F. & Sanderson, M. J. 2000: Phylogenetic systematics of the tribe Millettieae (Leguminosae) based on chloroplast trnK/matK sequences and its implications for evolutionary in patterns in Papilinoideae. -American Journal of Botany. 87: 418-430.

Huber-Morath, A. 1970: Ebenus. In: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, P. H. Davis (ed.) vol. 3: 590-596. -Edinburgh University Press.

Hutchinson, J. 1964: The Genera of Flowering Plants, vol. 1. -Oxford University Press.

Lock, J. M. & Simpson, K. 1991:.Legume of the west asia: a chek-list. Kew. -Royal Botanical Gardens.

Lock, J. M. & Schrire, B. D. 2005: Tribe Galegeae. in Legumes of the World,. G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. Mackinder and M. Lock (eds.), pp. 474-487. -Kew, Royal Botanical Gardens.

Lock, J. M. 2005: Tribe Hedysareae. In: Legumes of the World, G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. Mackinder and M. Lock (eds.), pp. 489-495. -Kew: -Royal Botanical Gardens.

Lock, J. M. & Maxted, N. 2005: Tribe Fabeae. In: Legumes of the World,. G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. Mackinder and M. Lock (eds.), pp. 504-509. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew.

Mabberley, D. J. 1990: The Plant-Book, A portable dictionary of the higher plants, reprinted with corrections. -Cambridge University Press.

Mironov, E. W. & Sokoloff, D. D. 2000: A carpological study of Eversmannia subspinosa (Fisch. ex. DC.) B. Fedtsch. (Leguminosae, Hedysareae). -Feddes Repertorium. 111: 1-8.

Mozaffarian, V. 1988: New species and new plant records from Iran. -The Iranian Journal of Botany. 4: 61-70.

Pavlova, D. K. & Manova, V. I. 2000: Pollen morphology of the genera Onobrychis and Hedysarum (Hedysareae, Fabaceae) in Bulgaria. -Annales Botanici Fennici 37: 207-217.

Perveen, A. & Qaiser M. 1998: Pollen Flora of Pakistan-VIII Leguminosae (Subfamily Papilionoideae). -Turkish Journal of Botany. 22:73-91.

Polhill, R. M. 1981a: Hedysareae. In: Advances in Legume Systematics, part 1. R. M. Polhill. and P. H. Raven (eds.), pp. 367-370. -Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Polhill, R. M. 1981b: Galegeae. In: Advances in Legume Systematics, part 1,. R. M. Polhill. and P. H. Raven (eds.), pp. 357-363. -Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Polhill, R. M. 1994: Classification of the Leuminosae. in: Phytochemical dictionary of the Leuminosae. eds. F.A. Bisby, J. Buckingham and J. B. Harborne (eds.), Phytochemical Dictionary of the Leguminosae. Vol. 1: 35-57. Plants and their constituents. -Chapman & Hall, London.

Ranjbar, M & Karamian, R. 2003: Caraganeae, a new tribe with notes on the genus Chesneya Lindel. (Fabaceae) from flora of the Iran. -Thaiszia Journal of Botany. 13:67-75.

Rechinger, K. H. 1984: Tribus Hedysareae. In: Papilionaceae II, Flora Iranica, Nr. 157: 365-475, K. H. Rechinger (ed.), pp. 365-475. -Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria.

Sanderson, M. J. and Liston, A. 1995: Molecular phylogeny systematic of Galegeae, with special reference to Astragalus. in Advances in Legume Systematics part 7 M. Crisp and J. J. Doyle (eds.), pp. 331-350. -Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Sanderson, M. J., & Wojciechowski, M. F. 1996: Diversification rates in a tempeate Legume clade: “are there so many species” of Astragalus (Fabaceae)? -American Journal of Botany 83: 1488-1502.

Swofford, D .L. 2002: PAUP*, phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other methods). Version 4.  -Sunderland Massachusetts Sinauer Associates

Thompson, J. D., Higging, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. 1994: Clustal W: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequnce alighnment through sequence weighting, position, specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. -Nucleic Acids Research. 22: 4673-4680.

Thulin, M. 1985: Revision of Taverniera (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). -Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 25:44-94

Trifi-Farah, N. & Mohamed, M. 2001: Hedysarum phylogeny mediated by RFLP analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA. -Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 48:3339-345

Sheidai, M., Yazdanbakhsh Z. & Bernard, F. 2002: Seed protein analysis of Alhagi (Leguminoseae) species and populations. -The Iranian Journal of Botany. 9: 141-149.

Wagstaff, S. J., Heenan, P. B & Sanderson, M. J. 1999: Classification, origin and patterns of diversification in New Zealand Carmichaelinae. -American Journal of Botany. 86: 1346-1356.

White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee S. & Taylor, J. 1990: Amplification and direct sequencing of Fungal ribosomal RNA gene for phylogenetics. In: PCR protocols: a guide to methods and amplifications, M. Innis. J. Sninsky and T. White (eds.), pp. 315-322. -Academic press. Sand Diego. California.

Wojciechowski, M. F., Sanderson, M. J., Steele, K. P. & Liston, A. 2000: Molecular phylogeny of the “temperate herbaceous tribes” of Papilionoid Legumes: A suppertree approach. In: Advances in Legume Systematics, part 9, P. S. Herendeen and A. Bruneau (eds.), pp. 277-298. -Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Wojciechowski, M. F. 2003: Reconstructing the phylogeny of Legumes (Leguminoseae): an early 21st century perspective. In: Advances in Legume Systematics, part 10, B. Klitgaard and A. Bruneau (eds.), pp. 5-35.: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Wojciechowski, M. F., Lavin, M. & Sanderson, M. J. 2004: A phylogeny of Legums (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family. -American Journal of Botany. 91: 1846-1862.

Wojciechowski, M. F. 2005: Astragalus (Fabaceae): A molecular phylogenetic perspective. -Brittonia. 57: 382-399.

Wojciechowski, M. F. 2006: IRLC (Invertead Repeat Lacking Clade). Version 11 July 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/IRLC_%28Invertead_Repeat-lacking_clade%29/60358/2006.07.11 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/.

Yildiz, B., Ciplak, B.&. Aktoklu, E. 1999: Fruit morphology of sections of the genus Onobrychis Miller (Fabaceae) and its phylogenetic implications. -Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 47:269-282.

Yakolev, G. P., Sytin, A.K &. Roskov, Y. R. 1996: Legumes of Northern Eurasia: a check-list. -Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.